The main unifying theme for the field of nanotechnology is the control of matter on a scale smaller than 1 micrometer, normally approximately 1 to 100 nanometers, as well as the fabrication of devices of this size. It is a highly multidisciplinary field, drawing from fields such as applied physics, materials science, colloidal science, device physics, supramolecular chemistry, and even mechanical and electrical engineering. Nanotechnology can be seen as an extension of existing sciences into the nanoscale, or as a recasting of existing sciences using a newer, more modern term.
Ophthalmology is ripe for application of nanotechnology. The National Eye Institute is currently emphasizing the possibilities. We have unparalleled access to our target surgical tissue and already have a microsurgical environment that can be modified to create a nanosurgical environment.