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Bascom Palmer Eye Institute

Pediatric Glaucoma

Although it most commonly affects the elderly, primary infantile glaucoma occurs in about 1 in 25,000 babies born in the United States. Glaucoma may also develop in babies and children who have other types of eye disease. In both adults and children with glaucoma, the prevention of permanent blindness requires detection and proper treatment. Glaucoma may go undetected during childhood because the signs of the disease may not be obvious and the disorder can masquerade as other conditions.

The Samuel & Ethel Balkan International Pediatric Glaucoma Center

The Samuel and Ethel Balkan International Pediatric Glaucoma Center at Bascom Palmer Eye Institute was made possible by a generous contribution by the Balkan/Litowitz family. Under the directorship of Alana L. Grajewski, M.D., this center offers a first of its kind multi-disciplinary approach to diagnosing and treating pediatric glaucoma. Click here to learn more about the Balkan Center.

The different treatment specialties include:

Early signs of glaucoma in infants and children

  • Enlargement of one or both eyes (this may be subtle and can be mistaken for normal)
  • Excessive tearing
  • Cloudy corneas
  • Sensitivity to light in one or both eyes
  • Myopia (nearsightedness) in one or both eyes


Pediatric glaucoma is treated differently than adult glaucoma. Most patients require surgery, and two operations for childhood glaucoma are trabeculotomy and goniotomy, which are almost never used in the treatment of adult glaucoma.
Because most eye doctors do not have experience treating infants or young children with glaucoma, patients usually are referred to specialists for treatment.

Approximately 80-90% of babies who receive prompt surgical treatment will do well, and may have normal or nearly normal vision for their lifetime. Most babies who have glaucoma and do not obtain appropriate care quickly will lose their vision.

Early detection and treatment can mean the difference between sight and blindness.